The IS-3 was the result of the work of many Soviet military designers, which was reflected in its design. The car was not considered extremely heavy or very large, but it looked pretty impressive. The power of the IS-3 was felt from afar.
The Soviet IS-3 is a tank of the war period. It was created directly during the Second World War, which in fact means that the priority of the speed of project execution was put above its quality and reliability. Indeed, some details of the IS-3 were not finalized due to a banal reason - lack of time. This strategy can be traced to the vast majority of weapons of war - a large number of unreliable vehicles are better than fewer polished vehicles. Although, with all its shortcomings, "Kirovets-1" has served for many decades.
History of creation - competition of projects
The design of a new Soviet tank started in 1944, and the first conveyor batch came out in 1945. A notable feature of the Kirovets-1 (another name for the tank) was its design, which combined two projects of competing Soviet developers within itself. The tower of the final model IS-3 was the brainchild of designer M.F. Balzhi. Initially, the engineer analyzed information about the damage of the previous version (IS-2), so in his project he combined the low silhouette of the tower and the powerful armor of the frontal part of the tank.
At the same time, they learned about the creation of a new machine at another plant under the control of J.Ya. Kotina. On his initiative, the production of a prototype began, capable of competing with the project authored by Balzhi. The body of the Kotin machine consisted of two front armor plates connected at an angle. From above, this structure was covered by a triangular roof, which housed a hatch for the driver. The bottom plate, also at an angle, closed the "sharp nose" of the tank.
The developments of the two plants were sent for approval to the party profile leadership. The result was an unusual decision: for the final version of the combat vehicle, it was decided to take the tower device from the Balzhi design, and the hull from the Kotin design.
The IS-3 was equipped with a 122 mm D-25T combat mount and a DT machine gun connected to it. An armor-piercing projectile fired from a gun developed an initial speed of 781 m / s, and the presence of a telescopic sight determined the range of aimed firing within 5 kilometers.
The rate of fire of tank weapons reached two shots per minute, in some cases (with a well-trained crew) - up to three. Combat kit IS-3 included 10 armor-piercing shells and 18 high-explosive fragmentation shells. Different types of shells were painted in different colors, making it easier to train the crew.
The IS-3M is an improved modification of the original combat vehicle design. This tank has undergone major revisions, correcting engineering errors of the original version. Also, some parts have been completely replaced.
So, the IS-3M was equipped with a night vision device for the driver, a walkie-talkie and other communication mechanisms. The rotating hatch mechanism was reinforced in the body of the car, the engine was replaced with a more reliable one (although its power remained the same). Idler wheels and road roller parts were reinforced, and the combat weapon was replaced.
Despite the fact that the IS-3 project was created for the war period, the machine did not take part in hostilities. The first time the tank was "brought out" in September 1945 at the parade of the Allied Forces of the WWII in Berlin. Later, the heavyweight IS-3 was involved in the mid-50s during the Hungarian unrest, and the machine was also used by Egypt in a six-day military conflict with Israel (1967). In total, about 2300 IC models and its updated versions were produced.
The Topic of Article: Soviet tank IS-3 - the result of the rivalry between two developers.