The world's oceans contain many secrets. This is especially true of its depths, where it is difficult for a person to reach. To carry out such work, various equipment and devices are used. At the same time, scientists and specialists are not averse to using the help of marine life for such purposes. In the first part of the review, we will tell you about the development of control devices for reconnaissance jellyfish by American engineers and their testing. The second information block will be devoted to albatrosses. We will find out how they help fight poachers and at the same time participate in the development of new technologies.
Medusa in the service of humans
Statistical data show that currently no more than 10-12% of the World Ocean has been developed and explored. In order to move further, it is necessary to look for new approaches in this process. Bathyscaphes and bathyspheres can be used not always and everywhere. Sometimes this is not economically feasible. The ideal option would be to attract the inhabitants of the deep sea to help.
Such attempts have already been made. People actively trained dolphins while studying them. A lot of new information was obtained, which later made it possible to understand the features of echolocation used by dolphins to communicate with each other.
Now it's the jellyfish's turn to help people in their desire to learn all the secrets of the sea depths of the planet. Scientists have not chosen them for this by chance. These creatures are in constant motion. At the same time, they do not develop high speed, which allows them to install sensors and special equipment on their bodies without worrying about the safety of the equipment. Jellyfish live at different depths, which suggests a variety of information.
Experts from the University of California and Stanford USA have created a prototype of a device that will help in the management of jellyfish.
It is known that these organisms usually move at a speed of 2 cm / sec, but can easily increase it to 6 cm / sec.
Scientists wanted to be able to adjust their speed within the biological parameters of the subjects. To do this, they modernized a pacemaker, which they adapted to transmit electrical impulses in a given mode.
This prototype was implanted into the body of one of the jellyfish, after which it began to move more actively. This became possible due to the fact that the artificial signal interrupted the natural one and increased the intensity of the rhythm threefold.
No harm was done to the marine organism. These creatures do not have pain receptors, and all their dissatisfaction with any discomfort is transmitted through the abundant secretion of mucus.
Scientists assure that not a single jellyfish was harmed during the experiment, there was no increased release of the substance. They also monitored some of her vital signs. It was found that oxygen consumption and energy expenditure only doubled.
This suggests that creatures in this rhythm do not work for wear. This is not harmful for them, especially if you alternate between different rhythms of movement. Then the jellyfish will calmly recuperate and work without harming themselves.
The researchers say that in the future they want to master the control of these organisms. Then the efficiency of their use will increase.
How birds help fight poachers
More than three years ago, scientists established that albatrosses and other large birds constantly follow sea vessels in the hope of getting something for lunch. This behavior is typical for 70% of the population.
Upon learning of this, the researchers thought that this behavior could be used in the interests of protecting nature.
Experts from France and Britain decided to create a marine patrol of albatrosses. To do this, they made a device with three antennas, capable of finding ships' radars, fixing their location and transmitting all data via GPS to the base.
The equipment receives power from the solar battery unit. The gadget has a compact size and is mounted on the back of the bird.
The experiment was a success, now the patrol includes 169 birds. They effectively combat the phenomenon of poaching. This happens in the following way.
All fishing vessels legally fishing are required to have and operate an automated identification system (AIS). She informs about their belonging, location and route. Poachers regularly ignore AIS requirements.
This radar system is also needed to prevent collisions between vessels while fishing. It turns out that illegal immigrants violate several requirements.
The Marine Patrol records the presence of ships at a distance of 30 km, which is immediately reported to interested parties. Experts check the obtained data with the available database and calculate those vessels that are engaged in illegal fishing.
While birds help humans in the fight against poaching only in the southern part of the World Ocean. It is known that they found 353 ships during the entire patrol. Approximately 1/3 of them fished without including AIS.
The Topic of Article: How marine life and birds help humans in researching the oceans and mastering new technologies.