An international team of scientists has conducted a series of experiments using plants. It was found that they have signaling molecules that are similar to animals and are found in many of their species.
Plant leaves using these molecules have the ability to transmit various signals to each other. Perhaps this is information about the presence of some kind of danger or emergency. Thus, we can talk about the existence of an analogue of our nervous system in them.
In the animal kingdom, when the cells of the nervous system are irritated, glutamic acid is released. It initiates an electrochemical reaction that releases calcium ions. It helps to remove the cage from the danger zone. It also does not do without neurotransmitters - substances that facilitate the transmission of impulses between neurons.
These studies were carried out by scientists from the USA and Japan. They found out that plants have a similar system.
How did you find out.
It happened by chance. Initially, a completely different task was set. Experts sought to establish how gravity affects the change in calcium levels in our green friends.
The research was carried out on the example of a herbaceous plant, Arabidopsis. Thanks to the creation of a molecular sensor - a fluorescent substance sensitive to calcium content, changes in its level in the plant were monitored. All this happened in real time.
With an increase in the level of calcium, the degree of luminescence of the substance increased. The molecular sensor allowed scientists to study changes in its level in the tissues of this biomass under changing conditions.
Simon Gilroy, a biologist at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, gave his comments on this. He explained that researchers had previously suspected the existence of a certain signaling system in plants. It was noticed that when one of their parts was damaged, the rest received a message about the incident in order to launch protective mechanisms. Scientists did not know what was causing this.
If one of the leaves of a plant is damaged or destroyed, the stem and its other leaves receive information about this in a short time. An experiment was specially modeled and carried out. In its process, one of the leaves was cut off from the rezukhovidka. A change in calcium content was also found here. A kind of impulse was formed, which began to move, spreading from the site of damage to the rest of the plant.
The fluorescent substance began to glow brightly near the injury site. Its extinction was noticed at some distance from this place. However, it soon appeared again. It was a little further. This reaction can be compared to the movement of a wave in the sea. After a while, the semblance of a wave reached all the leaves of the bioorganism.
What's going on.
Some measurements were taken. It turned out that the velocity characteristics of this ejection are no more than one millimeter per second. In animals, this indicator is much higher. It is equal to 120 m / s. However, despite such a low speed, its indicators are quite enough for all parts of the plant to receive this information and start triggering their defense mechanisms.
Some of them produce chemicals that harm the "aggressor", while others emit a strong, unpleasant odor.
What could be behind the rise in calcium levels? Researchers speculate that the amino acid glutamate is behind everything. It was found even earlier in plants. Previous studies have shown that plants lacking glutamate receptors do not trigger an electrical response when a threat is present.
When damage is formed, glutamate is released. The bioorganism's receptors increase the level of calcium, which triggers all other protective reactions.
The main thing is that everything happens in the absence of neurons. We underestimate our green friends. They are much more complicated and interesting than it seems at first glance.
The Topic of Article: Chess and checkmate are vegans: scientists have found that plants also have a nervous system.