Immediately after the invention of the first pistols, it became necessary to reduce the noise effect of the shot as much as possible, although it was technically impossible to implement this for a long time.
The development of silent types of weapons was widespread in the 20th century, and in this no small portion of the merit belongs to Soviet weapon designers.
Gurevich Revolver or Additional Difficulties
One of the methods for reducing loud noise accompaniment of a shot is a muffler, as well as bullets with a subsonic velocity. In the second half of the 40s, Gurevich's pistol used another method of noise isolation.
The device of the cartridge of Gurevich's pistol was of an unusual design. The powder charge inside the sleeve was separated by a wad, and the space compartment between it and the sleeve (where the bullet was placed) was filled with water. During the shot, the powder gases moved the wad, which in turn began to push out the liquid. The diameter of the barrel of the weapon was smaller in comparison with the diameter of the sleeve, as a result, after the bullet was fired, the wad remained inside, the powder charge was locked, which reduced the sound of the shot. The revolver was developed as a prototype, but was not mass-produced, since its device was rather bulky.
PB pistol with silencer
The next stage in the development of domestic models of silent weapons began in the 60s. The confrontation between the USSR and political opponents of that period became the reason for the creation of another "quiet" weapon to equip intelligence departments operating on foreign territory. The PB pistol became such a weapon.
It is believed that it was created on the model of a Makarov pistol, but in fact, the design of the PB contains only borrowings of certain parts of it, although outwardly both samples have a certain similarity.
The muffler provided a reduction in the sound of the shot, but the weapon did not become completely silent - it was given out by the characteristic clank of the shutter. At the same time, the PB is characterized by good balancing and ergonomics, the weapon is still used today.
The disadvantage of the PB model was the noise due to the moving parts of the structure hitting each other. For this reason, Soviet gunsmiths began developing another version of a silent weapon using a different method of reducing noise at the time of a shot. At the same time (mid-60s), another method of reducing sound began to develop, called cutting off the powder charge inside the sleeve. The weapon that uses this method is the C-4 pistol.
The new development did not reveal itself as a creak of automation, since it was not provided for in the pistol. For the S-4, cartridges were specially designed, the working action of which was similar to their "brothers" in the Gurevich revolver. The only difference was that instead of liquid, the powder charge was isolated by a piston. After the shot, the ignited charge began to press on the piston, which in turn pushed the bullet. After its exit from the barrel, the piston cut off the powder gases inside. The pistol clip held two cartridges inside two separate barrels.
All developments of silent revolvers differed in shortcomings: the complex design of the Gurevich model, the clanking of the PB structural parts and large dimensions, the complete absence of automation and the small number of cartridges in the S-4 pistol and its later modifications. The task of the designers was to create a new species that would combine all the advantages of its predecessors and would not have their disadvantages. In the early 80s, designers presented another device - PSS.
A special self-loading pistol (abbreviated as PSS) had the following characteristic features:
- no muffler;
- using a propellant gas cutoff method to reduce noise;
- compact size;
- sight accuracy.
A cartridge of the SP-4 modification was created especially for this type of weapon. Its device differs in that the bullet has a cylindrical shape, and at its beginning is the so-called brass rim. During the shot, the bezel hits the rifling barrel, causing the bullet to spin. From a distance of up to 25 meters, such a bullet passes through a helmet or protective vest.
There are no analogues of such a device. The PSS is still not out of production and is being adopted by the security forces.
The Topic of Article: Review of Soviet-made silent pistols.