Soviet Kh-29T air-to-surface missile (Topic)

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Soviet Kh-29T air-to-surface missile


The appearance in the Soviet Union of a class of guided air-to-ground missiles significantly improved the position of the country's military aviation.

In the 70s , the USSR Ministry of Defense launched a new type of weaponry, and by the early 80s, the development was adopted by the army. The new family of aircraft missiles received the X-29 classifier. One of the modifications of this class of ammunition was the Kh-29T model.

Homing missile

The rocket was created to hit targets on land and on water: reinforced concrete structures, railway bridges, warehouses, concrete shelters, warships. At first, the model was developed by the Molniya design bureau, whose engineers did most of the work. Later, the bureau stopped participating in the project due to the large number of orders for space programs. Completion of development and further start-up of serial production was carried out by the Vympel Design Bureau.


The X-29T has a built-in self-targeting television technology called Tubus-2. The passive homing system, innovative for its time, is characterized by complete autonomy. After the missile is launched, the combat aircraft can safely fly out of the active zone. The homing unit is equipped with a fixed video camera with a target tracking function and a program unit that designates and remembers the target, and also transmits commands to the tracking system and missile rudders.

X-29T in action

Strategic target detection can be carried out both using the aircraft's on-board computer and by the pilot himself visually. When the desired object is found and hits the sight, the military sets target designation to the missile's television system, and then the target picture is recorded on the monitor of the television sensor in the cockpit. Additionally, the desired object can be isolated by the camera among the general image and enlarged on the screen.

These are shots from the game Arma 3 and the rocket is different, but the principle of operation of this type of rocket illustrates perfectly.

The pilot holds the grip, fixing the aiming frame on the desired object, until the moment of approaching the permitted launch distance. Then a rocket shot is fired. Aiming is carried out according to the direct appearance by means of a television camera, but the contrast of light and shadow can also be used, which makes it possible to carry out an attack on hidden targets on a bright sunny day. The search process can be carried out by the guidance system independently, but a person still needs to confirm the target for the subsequent launch of the ammunition.


The distance of the X-29T application depends on the technical possibility of capturing and holding the desired object by the homing system, its size, flight altitude and weather conditions. The longest missile launch range of this class is recorded at a distance of 13 km. The new missile's TV homing technology has improved its accuracy characteristics. However, this class of weapons can only be used during the day and is better in good weather without fog and atmospheric haze.

Currently, the Tactical Missile Armament Corporation, which includes the Vympel State Design Bureau, and other companies of a similar profile, are engaged in the production and maintenance of missiles of the entire X-29 class.

The Topic of Article: Soviet Kh-29T air-to-surface missile.
Author: Jake Pinkman